The 2017 Tax Act, passed by the Republican majority in Congress and signed into law by President Trump, has had a number of unintended consequences as well as strongly negative effects that weren’t clearly articulated at the time of passage. In particular, the nonprofit sector has been hit hard by financial and administrative burdens that have interfered with the ability of the charities to pursue their missions in the fields of health care, education and other human, religious and cultural services.

The Tax Act decreased incentives to donate to nonprofits because of the large increase in the standard deduction, while increasing administrative costs, imposing new taxes on nonprofit employee fringe benefits and excluding nonprofits from the new family and medical leave tax credit.

While the stated intent of some recent legislation has been to level the playing field between nonprofits and for-profit entities, the outcome of the Tax Act is that new burdens are placed on resource-strapped service providers. If Congress does not undo these harms, many nonprofits will be forced to cut back staff and services, and some may have to cease operating. The full effect on the sick, disabled, young and disadvantaged who depend on nonprofit services is incalculable, but this report outlines the dimensions of the new obstacles that have been placed in the way of Americans devoting their lives to keeping their neighbors healthy and whole.

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Assessment of Economy as it Pertains to the Federal Budget

The Budget Act of 1974 instructs the Joint Economic Committee to provide recommendations to the Budget Committee “as to the fiscal policy appropriate to the goals of the Employment Act of 1946.” The goals set forth in the Employment Act are to ensure that there are jobs available to all who are “able, willing and seeking to work” and to “promote maximum employment, production and purchasing power.” Below are the recommendations of the Democratic staff of the Joint Economic Committee in accordance with these goals.

Fashion is a highly sophisticated, $2.5 trillion global industry. In the United States alone, consumers spent nearly $380 billion on apparel and footwear in 2017. The industry, which encompasses everything from textile and apparel brands to wholesalers, importers and retailers, employs more than 1.8 million people in the United States. 

The U.S. fashion industry has evolved from its roots in manufacturing to new high-value design and other creative jobs. As with many industries in the manufacturing sector, the United States now concentrates on the high-value parts of the apparel global supply chain: research and development (R&D), design and marketing.

The twin forces of technology and globalization have had enormous ripple effects in the fashion industry, similar to many other industries, and has created new trends, challenges and opportunities. The impacts of social media, new business models, advanced manufacturing, and changing demographics are leading to significant changes in all aspects of the fashion industry with the potential to reshape it for years to come.

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